What to eat after you workout.


     What to eat after you workout                  Reblogged from : Huffington Post                                                                                 As a sports nutritionist, I consult for pro teams and privately counsel professional and competitive athletes in numerous sports, as well as fitness enthusiasts. Pros and weekend warriors definitely have different nutrition needs, but they do have one thing in common: In order to get the most out of being active, everyone needs to eat properly to help their bodies recover from the wear and tear of exercise.

Here are six rules to follow, and how to prevent overdoing it, which can cancel out the weight-loss benefits of breaking a sweat.

Eat within 30 to 60 minutes after exercise.
If you’ve had a particularly tough workout, try to eat a “recovery” meal as soon as possible. Exercise puts stress on your muscles, joints, and bones, and your body “uses up” nutrients during workouts; so post-exercise foods are all about putting back what you’ve lost, and providing the raw materials needed for repair and healing. In fact, it’s the recovery from exercise that really allows you to see results in terms of building strength, endurance, and lean muscle tissue. Not recovering properly can leave you weaker as you go into your next workout, and up your injury risk.

Think beyond protein.
Protein is a building block of muscle, so it is important post exercise, but an ideal recovery meal should also include good fat (also needed for healing muscles and joints), as well as plenty of nutrient-rich produce, and a healthy source of starch such as quinoa, sweet potato, or beans. These foods replenish nutrients that have been depleted, and provide energy to fuel your post-exercise metabolism. A great post-workout meal might be something like a smoothie made with either pea protein powder or grass-fed organic whey protein, whipped with fruit, leafy greens, almond butter or coconut oil, and oats or quinoa, or an omelet made with one whole organic egg and three whites, paired with veggies, avocado and black beans.

Keep it real.
The phrase “you are what you eat” couldn’t be more true. Nutrients from the foods you eat food are the foundation of the structure, function, and integrity of every one of your cells. Your body is continuously repairing, healing, and rebuilding itself, and how healthy your new cells are is directly determined by how well you’ve been eating. In short, your body is essentially one big miraculous construction site that’s open 24/7. So even if you’re lean and you burn a lot of calories, avoiding highly processed food and eating a clean, nutrient rich, whole foods diet can help you get the most out of all of your hard work, including cells that function better, and are less susceptible to premature aging, injury and disease.

Don’t overcompensate.
If weight loss is one of your goals, it’s important to not overestimate how much extra food you “earned” working out. In fact, it’s incredibly easy to “eat back” all of what you’ve burned. For example, in a one-hour elliptical session, an average woman burns about 490 calories. A large salted caramel Pinkberry contains 444 calories, and a 32 ounce high-protein pineapple smoothie from Smoothie King clocks in at 500 calories. Even if you don’t splurge on treats like these, you may be tempted to sneak a little extra almond butter, or be less mindful of your oatmeal or fruit portions, and those extras can add up. And if you’re going to be eating a meal within an hour of finishing up a workout, you don’t also need a post-exercise bar or snack.

Rehydrate.
If you sweat heavily, exercise in high humidity (which prevents cooling of the body) or your workouts last longer than 60 minutes, you might need a sports drink rather than plain water during exercise. These beverages are designed to keep you well hydrated, but they also provide electrolytes to replace those lost in your sweat (like sodium, which makes sweat salty; and potassium, which helps regulate heart rhythm), as well as fuel to keep you going. If your workouts are less strenuous, shorter, climate controlled, or not so sweaty, plain H2O is probably fine. The general rule of thumb is to drink at least two cups of fluid two hours before exercise, another two cups 15 minutes prior, and a half-cup every 15 minutes during. Post exercise, aim for two cups of water (16 ounces) for every pound of body weight lost, and monitor the color of your urine — if you’re well hydrated it should be pale.

Watch your alcohol intake.
Many athletes and active people I work with enjoy imbibing a bit after working out. Alcohol in moderation is fine, but be sure to eat first to start the recovery process. Also, it’s important to know that alcohol has been shown to accelerate post-exercise muscle loss and the loss of muscle strength by as much as 40%. It can also interfere with replenishing glycogen, the storage form of carbohydrates you stock away in your muscles to serve as energy “piggy banks.” Less glycogen can translate into a lack of power or endurance during your next workout, so aim for moderation

More from Health.com:

Best Superfoods for Weight Loss
11 Ways to Stop Overeating After Your Workouts
30 Healthy Foods That Could Wreck Your Diet

6 Rules For Post-Workout Meals 

Clos

Dance like Nobody’s Watching!


Dance like Nobody’s Watching!                                                            20150113_211220(1)                                                                             Do you like to dance? I’m sure most of you do. So what’s stopping you, I never used to like to dance.  I felt stupid like I didn’t know how. I thought people would laugh at me. I lacked confidence in myself when it cam to how other saw me. Then one day I was the only one home and I was bored out of my mind so I turned on the stereo system and just started dancing and singing along with the music. It became a regular thing I would do everyday,or whenever I didn’t have anything else to do. If my family were home I would just spend 30 mins or so in my room with a smaller stereo or radio. Depending on how much weight you have to lose. Remember just take baby steps If you need to just start with 15 mins, you can do this every day or 2 to 4 times a week it is up to you and all you need is a radio, and a place where no one can  bother you.20150113_211432 Total  privacy so you can feel comfortable knowing no one else can see you. So you will allow yourself  to let lose and really get into the music. Even if you aren’t trying to lose weight this is a great way to stay in shape. It is also a great way to release stress. After a few days you will  start to notice muscles tightening,they might even start to feel sore. Just work through it. If necessary take a break for a day , but then get back to it. Yes it might take some time to get where you want to be, but if you stick to it and don’t give up you will see results. And as you start seeing those muscles getting tighter, or those unwanted pounds disappearing you will also build self- esteem, and confidence in yourself. So no matter who you are or what your situation is if you can stand you can dance. 20150113_211220(1)Grab a radio and dance it out.

7 Things Japan Can Teach You About Living A Long, Healthy Life


7 Things Japan Can Teach You About Living A Long, Healthy Life

      Reblogged:From HuffingtonPost                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Japan, the land that gave us such treasures as HokusaiMothra and the delicious snack-stick known as Pocky , offers what may be the world’s best blueprint for a healthy life. Not only do Japanese men and women routinely rank at the top of lists detailing humanity’s longest and healthiest life spans, but, in the most recent World Health Organization study, Japanese women came in first with life expectancies of 87.0 years.

And it’s not all due to genes. We teamed up with Aetna to give a head-to-toe examination of all of the secrets of the Japanese lifestyle, from seaweed to mountain climbing to zen. So while you might never turn Japanese, you’ll be able to live more like them.


They value a seafood diet.fatty fish

The Japanese love them a good fish. According to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Japanese seafood consumption was 55.7 kilograms per capita in the last year of data available. (The U.S. ate just 24.2 kilograms.) The numbers put Japan in the top six of seafood consumption among larger nations. So important is their fish diet that trade groups and bureaucrats promoted a band to combat declining consumption levels among Japanese youth.

(The theme song they came up with goes: “Fish Fish Fish. You get smart when you eat fish.”)

The biggest benefit of eating fish may be this: many people that eat it outlive their fish-phobic friends. The consumption of fish lowers the risk of death by heart disease by 36 percent. More astounding, older people who have higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids, largely due to their consumption of fatty fish, lived an average of 2.2 years longerthan those with lower levels. Diets heavy in fatty fishes are also proven to elevate mood and prevent certain types of cancer and inflammation.

Scientists recommend eating two servings of fatty fish, like tuna or salmon, each week. For best results, make sure you poach, grill or steam it.                                                                                                                                                              But they don’t forget about all the other bounty of the sea.

 seaweed

The U.N. reports that Japan consumes about 100,000 tons of seaweed per year. And they aren’t picky about type: The Japanese use over 20 species of the stuff in their cuisine. In fact, residents of Japan’s southernmost island of Okinawa, known for breeding centenarians,eat more seaweed than anywhere else in the world.

Okay, but is kelp actually good for you? All signs suggest it is — amazingly so. Seaweed packs between 2 and 9 grams of protein per cup, and some varieties deliver exponentially more potassium than a banana. It’s also the rare food to contain natural iodine — a useful thing for regulating thyroids. Additionally, Harvard researcherstheorize that seaweed’s ability to regulate estrogen and estriadollevels may explain the island nation’s significantly low rates of breast cancer. (They may also ease symptoms of PMS.)

If you don’t like the flavor, you have options. (See: seaweed pasta.) That being said, seaweed is so nutrient-dense it can have side effects.Limit your intake of certain varieties to two tablespoons per week. But don’t worry too much; your sushi rolls are still good to go.

They made singing a national pastime. 

lostintranslation
Visitors might be shocked at just how prevalent — as in, it’s everywhere— karaoke is in Japan. The numbers do a little to help demonstrate the size of the Japanese pastime: In 2010, the Japanese karaoke industryraked in over 10 billion dollars. (To put that in perspective, that same year its film industry took in a record high 2.66 billion dollars.) The largest karaoke chain, Big Echo, operates in 229 locations across the country.

Well, here’s some good news for all the singers out there: Karaoke is good for you. In a 2009 study of almost 20,000 men, researchers at the Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine and Osaka University found that moderate drinking with friends improves cardiovascular health. To quote the study’s author: “Singers use deep breathing, which is good for the nervous system. After singing, they usually receive applause. It is a good kind of social support, and helps in the face of adverse occasions or stressful events.”

So gather some friends, and belt out a few notes.


One word: fermentation.

miso
We’re not talking sake here (although there’s evidence that it might have some benefits when imbibed in moderation). No, Japanese cuisine is rich in fermented foods, from the colorful tsukemono, or pickled side dishes, that paint every meal to the ubiquitous soy sauce, of which the average Japanese consumes 1.8 gallons per year. Japanese staples like soy, miso and the not-for-newbies bean paste natto are all achieved through fermentation.

In Japanese fermentative processes, fungal agent koji acts as the world’s tiniest mama bird, partially digesting food before it reaches human mouths. Research suggests that fermentation not only eases digestion, but also strengthens the immune system — scientists notethat the vast majority of immune cells live in our guts.

You don’t need more than a few servings a week for a benefit. Add miso paste as a marinade to your dishes, and enjoy better health and the amazing flavor.


The Japanese go green. 

japanese forest shrine
You might think the entire archipelago is covered in vast cities, but it’s actually pretty green; portions of the country are temperaterainforests. Given its beauty, it’s not surprising that reverence for nature has rooted its way into Japanese culture.

The Japanese government cemented nature-loving as policy when itapproved the country’s 16th national holiday, Mountain Day, which celebrates exactly what you think it would. And Japanese octogenarians have set records for mountain climbing. (Yes, an 80-year old climbed Everest. Feel bad about sitting on the couch tonight.) Furthermore, the Japanese are pioneering forest therapy, which consists of recuperative jaunts to local green spaces.

Time spent in nature provides serious health benefits. Almost every organ in your body is a battery for Vitamin D, and not getting enough of the wonder-nutrient leads to cancer, autoimmune disorder and arthritis. Furthermore, research shows that time in nature improves cognitive and creative function by 20 percent and 50 percent, respectively.

So do what your Mom told you, and get some fresh air.


They have the best baths.

snow onsen
Bathtime is serious business in Japan. As anyone who has been to asentō or onsen (public baths and hot springs) can tell you, they are an extremely relaxing way to spend time. About 85 percent of Japanese end their day in a bath, and some 128 million bathers visited the country’s public baths during 2010. As early as the 17th century, Japanese medical texts were touting a hot soak as a way of warding off ailments.

As it turns out, they may have been onto something. Japanese scientists confirmed that a bath in mineral-laden water can treat rheumatism, skin disorders and neuralgia. And if, like us, you use bath time for your daily meditation, that has health benefits too: two-thirds of patients who meditate showed significant drops in blood pressure.


Japan always makes time for tea.
green tea
The tea ceremony is a gorgeously stylized ritual in a country full of them. The tradition, studied for years by practitioners, takes place in a small structure modeled to look like a hermit’s hut. The idea is to lead your mind away from the everyday of life.

Despite the specialized ritual, tea consumption is an integral part of the everyday Japanese lifestyle. This habit puts them in the top tentea-drinking nations — ahead of their bigger neighbor, China. Most tea consumed in Japan is green. In fact, without a qualifier, the word for “tea” in Japanese automatically means green.

Green tea is not only delicious (have you had green tea ice cream?), but also insanely beneficial. Studies have connected drinking green tea to reduced risk of heart disease and cancer and higher levels of cognitive function. And Japanese citizens who drank five cups of green tea per day had 26 percent lower mortality rates.

 

Can Vegetarians Go Paleo?


Can Vegetarians Go Paleo?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Reblogged: from Huffington Post                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bacon, steak and more bacon is often associated with the much-hypedPaleo Diet, which is undoubtedly having a moment. Can vegetarians take part in a diet that puts so much emphasis on meat?

It is possible. Our Paleolithic ancestors were very much about meat, yes, but vegetables, nuts and seeds were also part of their whatever-we-can-get-our-hands-on meal plan. The basic premise of this stone-age eating is to eat like hunter-gatherers did 10,000 years ago. They didn’t have farms, which made it impossible to eat wheat or dairy. Proponents of the lifestyle argue humans were genetically predisposed to consume food the way our ancestors did, and that mimicking those ancient eating habits can help decrease chronic disease and support a healthy weight.

The millennial version gets specific: You can eat meat, poultry, fish, eggs, fruit, vegetables and nuts. Nixed from the list? Grains, legumes, dairy, refined sugar and vegetable oils.

It’s not surprising that vegetarians are among those eager to give Paleo a go; it was the most Googled diet of 2013 and hasn’t lost much traction. For some, it may be impossible to imagine quitting staples like pizza, sandwiches and ice cream, but thousands have tried. There are hundreds of books and blogs on the lifestyle along with millions offood porn-esque hashtags.

Whether vegetarians should go Paleo is a more complicated story.

For starters, herbivores who want to go Paleo will have to rely on eggs for their main source of protein. Beyond the health risks associated with overdosing on eggs, eating them for every meal could get a little tiresome.

“The most quality sources of protein for vegetarians are prohibited on the Paleo diet,” Alexis Joseph, a registered dietician and the author ofHummusapien blog, told The Huffington Post. No peanuts (they’re legumes). No dairy. No soy. No quinoa. All of these “nos” can make it really tough to get the body the nutrients it needs. Nuts, which are permitted on the Paleo plan, are problematic. “They’re a really good protein, but they’re extremely high in calories,” Joseph says.

Joseph is also skeptical of the entire diet. “We can’t mimic cavemen. They had to hunt and gather for their food — which was physically taxing. Their meat wasn’t factory-farmed and saturated with antibiotics, pesticides and chemicals.” Plus, she says, many of the animals hunted by our cave-dwelling ancestors are now extinct. Paleo diets often emphasize a meal plan low in carbohydrates, but the body and the brain run on carbs, Joseph says. “Low carbohydrate, high protein diets can be dangerous for the body. Eliminating legumes and whole grains reduces fiber and nutrients like B vitamins, which are proven to promote healthy weight, reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and lower blood pressure.”

For those vegetarians who are determined to dip their toes into the Paleo fad pool, Joseph suggests making a few modifications to the diet. Incorporate quality vegetarian sources of proteins like lentils, quinoa and beans. The changes will make the diet resemble more of a gluten-free vegetarian meal plan but still promote the essential qualities of the Paleo diet, which can support certain healthy habits, like eating fewer processed foods and hydrogenated oils.

If you’re curious what an entirely Paleo and vegetarian dish might look like, Joseph does have one recipe to share:Joseph says this recipe boasts the good stuff: The sweet potato is made up of complex carbs and beta-carotene, the egg provides some protein and the avocado cubes are full of healthy fat. To make it, scrub a medium sweet potato, stab it with a fork and bake it in the oven at 400 degrees for about an hour. Once it’s cooked, take it out and slice it in half and fill it with cubed avocado and salsa. Cook up your egg however you like (consider prepping it sunny-side up in a bit of coconut oil) and add it to the stuffed potato.

Just Checking In

What IsThe Paleo Diet?

Just Checking In

Sorry I haven’t posted in some time, life has been kinda crazy the past few months. So enough about me..How are you all doing, any success stories you would like to share. Remember even those little goals you accomplish are also success stories. So think about all the goals you have set for yourself. How many have you reached? Or How close have you come at reaching your goal?  Let’s stir up some inspiration,  leave a comment of inspiration on your success… No matter how small you think it may be, It  might just be what another needs to hear… Okay well I look forward to hearing all about your accomplishments… I will be posting some other success stories as well..

13 Weight Loss Resolutions You Shouldn’t Make


Diet and Nutrition

Diet and Nutrition (Photo credit: fantasyhealthball)

13 Weight Loss Resolutions You Shouldn’t Make

      Reblogged From:Yahoo Health                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Get this: 30% of all New Year’s resolutions are broken before February, according to a poll by the time management firm Franklin Covey. “People tend to fall off the weight-loss wagon so quickly because their goals are unrealistic,” says Toby Amidor, a registered dietitian based in New York City. “When people feel as though they’ve failed, they tend to throw in the towel for good instead of giving their resolution another shot.” Here, four of the nation’s top diet experts reveal common weight loss resolutions that almost always backfire.

“I want to lose 20 pounds”

“Dropping 20 pounds is a great long-term goal, but dieters tend to fall off track when they have such a lofty resolution,” says Amidor.

Revised resolution: Lose 1 pound per week
“Instead of taking on such a big task, focus on losing one pound a week by setting small diet and exercise goals,” suggests Amidor. “For example, resolve to pick skim dairy over whole and pledge to work out 30 minutes, three times a week. You’ll be surprised how small tweaks can result in major change.”

5 Reasons New Year’s Resolutions Fail

“I’m going to try the ________ diet”

Fill in the blank with any fad diet and you’re doomed for failure. A typical diet-of-the-moment requires cutting out one or more major food groups, like fruits, grains, or meats. That’s simply unhealthy and can also prove overwhelming, says Amidor.

Revised resolution: Eat lean protein and veggies at every meal
A well-balanced and properly portioned eating plan that includes a variety of produce and lean meats (and the occasional sweet treat!) will always be the ticket to long-term weight loss, Amidor says.

“I’m going to stop eating at restaurants”

Nixing a night out with friends for the sake of your diet is no way to live, says Amidor. You’ll only wind up frustrated and will be more likely to fall off the wagon.

Revised resolution: Order smarter at restaurants
“Before dining out, have 10 almonds or an apple so you don’t arrive ravenous, and then start with a small salad,” suggests Amidor. In a 2004 study published in theJournal of the American Diet Association, Penn State researchers found that women who started a lunch with a salad consumed up to 12% fewer calories than those who skipped the first course. “Choose a light appetizer as your entree and have the bread basket removed,” says Amidor.

TIME Magazine’s Top 10 Commonly Broken New Years Resolutions

“I’m going to eat 900 calories a day until I lose the weight”

Sure, severely restricting your calorie intake will spur weight loss, but you’ll gain it all back as soon as you start eating normally again (not to mention that starving yourself is dangerous). “This is often the attitude of yo-yo dieters, who go from a size four to a 12 and back again, seemingly overnight,” says Amidor.

Revised resolution: Develop a healthy eating plan with an RD
If you’re unsure how to lose weight the healthy way, consider making an appointment with a dietitian. “Many RDs now take insurance, so don’t be afraid to ask if yours is accepted,” says Amidor. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics has a registered dietitian referral service that allows you to search a database of practitioners across the nation.

“I’m going on a juice cleanse”

After a holiday binge, a detox may seem like a good idea, “but an all-or-nothing approach to weight loss will ultimately fail,” says Lisa DeFazio,RD, a celebrity nutritionist based in Los Angeles.

Revised resolution: Do a mini-cleanse
Jumpstart your weight loss plan with a two-day, 1,200-calorie juice cleanse instead. “Replace breakfast and lunch with a fresh vegetable juice or a protein shake and eat a balanced dinner of whole grains, vegetables, and a lean protein like chicken or fish,” suggests DeFazio.

“I’m going vegetarian”

Losing weight requires burning more calories than you consume, but eliminating meat from your diet won’t necessarily cut your calorie intake. “Newbie vegetarians sometimes gain weight because they are unaware of the hidden calories in vegetarian go-tos like cheese and pasta,” warns DeFazio.

Revised resolution: Reduce your meat intake
“Lean animal proteins should take up no more than a quarter of your plate at each meal,” says DeFazio. Fill the rest of your dish with whole grains, fruits, and vegetables to fuel weight loss. You could also try swapping some of your meat with vegetarian protein sources.

“I’m going to weigh myself every morning”

“Daily weigh-ins are not an accurate gauge of progress,” says Tanya Zuckerbrot, a registered dietitian based in New York City and founder of the F-Factor Diet. Water retention and hormones can mean as much as a two-pound swing in as little as a day. Plus, if your weight-loss plan involves strength training (and it should!), you may even gain weight from increased muscle weight while still losing fat and inches.

Revised resolution: Measure weight loss in inches, not pounds When you feel your pants getting looser as the weeks go by, you’ll know you’re slimming down, says Zuckerbrot.

“I’m quitting junk food”

“Cutting out indulgences may initially help you lose weight, but over time it will make you feel deprived and ultimately lead to bingeing,” warns Zuckerbrot.

Revised resolution: Follow the 80/20 rule
Many weight loss experts recommend making 80% of the calories you consume healthy, and saving the remaining 20% for what may otherwise be considered diet no-nos.

“I’m going to cut calories by skipping breakfast”

Research shows that foregoing a morning meal will put you on the fast track to weight gain, not loss. In a study published in the European Journal of Neuroscience, for example, participants who skipped breakfast were hungrier and more likely to indulge in fattening foods later in the day.

Revised resolution: Eat a protein-packed breakfast every morning
Eating a filling breakfast lessens the chances of bingeing on junk later in the day, says Zuckerbrot. “Pair lean proteins with high fiber, complex carbs—think a veggie omelet with a slice of whole-wheat toast or Greek yogurt with fruit and a tablespoon of nuts—to keep hunger at bay and ward off craving all day long.”

“I won’t eat after 9 pm”

“There is no rule of thumb on what time to stop eating,” says Zuckerbrot. “The body stores any calories that aren’t used for energy regardless of the time those calories are eaten.”

Revised resolution: Sleep at least 7 hours a night
People who skimp on sleep are more susceptible to weight gain, according to a University of Pennsylvania study published in the journal Sleep. Researchers believe that sleep-deprived people tend to consume more calories daily than those who get a full night’s rest.

“I’m going to get more exercise”

“This resolution isn’t specific enough to be successful,” says Jim White, a personal trainer and registered dietitian in Virginia Beach, Va.

Revised resolution: Commit to a set number of weekly workouts
Fitness newbies should start with one weekly workout that combines cardio and weight training, like a body sculpting class or a session with a trainer. After three weeks, build up to two weekly workouts, and over time aim for five workouts a week. Progressing slowly wards off injury and excessive soreness that may prevent or deter you from sticking to your exercise program.

“I’m going to do yoga four times a week”

While yoga is a valuable part of any fitness routine, it probably won’t help you lose much weight. “A typical hour-long session only burns about 200 calories,” notes White.

Revised resolution: Try a variety of workouts
In addition to yoga, include a variety of heart-pumping workouts like walking, weightlifting, cycling, or Zumba in your fitness program to accelerate weight loss, suggests White.

“I’m going to the gym for two hours every day”

Working out two hours a day is not only boring, but it can also cause injury in newbies who aren’t used to being physically active, warns White.

Revised resolution: Do efficient workouts
Trade in long sweat sessions for high intensity, 30-minute interval workouts—you won’t burn out as quickly and you’ll actually torch more calories than doing long, drawn-out workouts,” says White. Plus, researchers from the University of Western Australia found that interval training helps suppress post-workout appetite, further accelerating weight loss.

Happy Holiday’s


English: Two New Year's Resolutions postcards

English: Two New Year’s Resolutions postcards (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Well just wanted to give a little shout out to ALL my follower’s,  A Big Thank You to you all! I hope everyone had a great Holiday. Now that we’ve all gotten though Thanks Giving,and Christmas,or which ever Holidays you celebrate. Now it’s time to think about  the year ahead,for some maybe a fresh start,a new beginning,or maybe just something you would like to change about yourself,or your lifestyle,a bad habit you would like to break ect…. That’s right it’s time to make those New Year Resolutions! But think carefully before choosing and remember if you make a  New Years Resolution set realistic goals, be consistent ,persistent,stay focused and visualize yourself reaching those goals…   Well good luck and have a Great New Year! Oh don’t forget to check out my next post 13 weight loss resolutions you shouldn’t make..